The nature of Azerbaijan and all

other infrastructure existed in

Azerbaijan enables tourists to

come to our country.

Heydar Aliyev

 

 

 

 

Historical monuments

THE NOAH TOMB – The architectural monument about VIII-XII centuries, in the territory named Kohnagala to the south of Nakhchivan city. In the article “Nakhchivan city and Nakhchivan Uyezd” written by K.A.Nikitin, the grave and tomb of prophet Noah in this land were described as: “Grave of Noah is situated in the south direction of Nakhchivan city, near the remnants of ancient fortress. The present view of grave was restored in the VIII century. Today’s grave indicates a tomb above the ground surface, not bigger. Before there was a temple, but then destroyed. Today’s tomb consists of the remnants of the lower floor of the former temple. The interior of the stair for to go down is round formed and looks like a vault enforced in the middle with a stone pole. According to the legend, the grave of Noah is under the right pole. There are no images or decorations in the vault. Vault walls had been whitened and the names of tourist and travelers coming to pilgrimahe had been written in different languages on the walls”. Bahruz Kangarli, the founder of the Azerbaijan realist work of Artist (1892-1922), painted the tomb of Noah from nature in oil paint which is situated in the city of Nakhchivan at the beginning of the XX century. The area in which the tomb was situated was depicted together with the tomb of Noah in the work. There are enough more legends about the grave of Noah in Nakhchivan. According to the legend, during the world storm the ark of Prophet Noah struck the Ilandagh which is situated in the territory of Nakhchivan and then dropped anchor on the mountain slope near the top of Gapijig. Naming that place Gamigaya, the existence of the Nabi land summer pasture and very ancient dwelling place named Nuhdaban not far from ground on the reality of the sources resembled in the legend. In the stories connected with prophet Noah, there is information that his grave was in the city of Nakhchivan. I.Shopen, dyubua de – Monpere, K.A.Nikitin, V.M.Sisioyev and other investigators predicted that the tomb of Noah was in Nakhchivan. On the basis of the decision of Vasif Talibov, Chairman of the Supreme Majlis of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic “About restoration of the grave tomb of prophet Noah situated in the city of Nakhchivan” signed on June 28, 2006, considering all historical sources, the tomb was again restored and wide range construction works were carried out in the territory.

 

THE GAMIGAYA PICTOGRAPHY – The pictographic depicts in the Garangush summer pasture, in the Nabi land of the Southern and Eastern slopes of the Gapichig Mountain, in the Ordubad Mountains of the Lesser Caucasus. The archaeologists discovered the ancient dwelling houses of the Azerbaijani Turks forefathers in the Garangush summer pasture where the pictographies were engraved on the rocks and proved that the Alp meadow rich Garangush summer pasture was the place of hunting of the ancient Nakhchivan people. Later these places were the summer pastures of the people living along the Araz River, also the Nakhchivanchay River, the Alinjachay and the Gilanchay river valley. From that time the people inhabited here engraved the pictures of human and different animals (goat, deer, ox, bird and so on) on the rocks and also the hunting stage with arrows and bows, different signs inclusively.

The age of the Gamigaya pictographies and the description of the dwellings are at least 5-6 thousand years. As a result of investigations, it was possible to observe the life and cultural development path of the people lived there. The Gamigaya pictographies are investigated from 1968. As a result of investigations, the round planned dwelling houses characteristic for the ancient architecture of Nakhchivan (the diameter of the walls 5-12m, were built of big sized rock pieces) and pictographic descriptions (on the rocks around the dwelling houses) were discovered. The most part of the ancient art works constitute the animal paintings, of which- goat, ox, deer, dog, leopard, wolf and others. Naturally, all animal paintings are in the form of alone, double, or in a flock form. The major part of them is goats. The Gamigaya pictographies are distinguished for their compositions simplicity and complication and also for their plots. The ox pictures are of the realist style, the horns are long and arch bent. There are depicts of the bull carts. The human pictures were given alone or in the staged compositions. Some human paintings were given in the fantastic form with their zoomorphic features. Among the pictures discovered the armed stages of the hunters with arrows and bows etc. and the stage of dance draw the attention of people. The most attractive symbolic signs of pictographic character – circles, square, triangle, the sign of the fortune of wheel were engraved in Gamigaya. These kinds of signs were scratched in the clay plates, painted potteries discovered from the Bronze Age layer, belonging to the 2nd millennium of Kultapa I, in Nakhchivan. The comparative analysis of the Gamigaya petrographies with the analogical monuments gives an opportunity to arrive at scientific conclusions about the moral culture and art of the ancient Azerbaijan and all these give a grounded confirmation to say that they belong to the Nakhchivan culture of the Azerbaijan descriptive art. The Chairman of the Supreme Assembly of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic received a decision on 26 April, 2001 “About the investigation of the Gamigaya monument of the Ordubad region”. After that decision, the activity of the archaeological expeditions intensified and began to carry out all round investigations and different descriptions were discovered. 

 

 "ASHABI-KAHF SANCTUARY" RELIGIOUS AND CULTURAL MONUMENT COMPLEX – cultural monument complex “Ashabi-Kahf place of pilgrimage”. The place of pilgrimage is in the natural cave, between the Hachadagh and Nahajir mountain at about 12km distance from Nakhchivan. It has the meaning “the cave possessers” in Arabic. The 9-27th sentences of the chapter “al-kahf” of the “Gurani-Karim” deal with the adventure of seven young people, who ran away from those, who trusted not in God but another thing (Tamlikha, Barnush, Sarnush, Maksilma, Maslina, Sazanush, Kaftantush (Shepherd) and their devoted dog by name Gitmir who awoke after sleeping over 300 years. The event existed in “Gurani-Karim” found its relation with the stories of some changes about the “Ashabi-Kahf” situated in Nakhchivan. For long years, according to the wrong thought existing in some literatures, the event was related with the Christianity and even the cave place named in “Gurani-Karim” was expected to be either in the Lesser Asia or in the territory of Palestin and even in other countries of the world. Unfortunately, in those literatures were not spoken (written) about the Ashabi-Kahf situated in Nakhchivan and the stories about the event. But later investigations prove that the very Ashabi-Kahf cave named in “Gurani-Karim” is situated in the territory of Nakhchivan, and it has no relation with the Christianity. There is an inscription in the alter of the mosque at the far end of the cave. In the central part of the inscription on the big sized marble (145x35cm) the sentences 9-12, 17-18 of the “al-Kahf” chapter in the frames dealt with the Ashabi-Kahf event of “Gurani-Karim”. The context of the inscription written in a ribbon like starting from top to left on the right side around the plate is: “Since the weathering the handwritings written here were obliterated. In connection with this Shukrulla Khan Kangarli, the ruler of the Nakhchivan land, the follower of Heydargulu Khan, the founder of blested deeds, and the former ruler of the country gave a decision stating that to copy the very plate of the inscription in another stone plate and arrange in the place of the former as a present. According to this order, Mahammad Khatib Nakhchivani, the son of Molla Mustafa, a devout person, began working and completed the plate in Safar al-Muzaffar, 1190 (22.03-20.04.1176)”. 

By the task and initiative of Heydar Aliyev, national leader, the construction works were held in Ashabi-Kahf. The inscription, dealing with this was arranged at the entrance of the place of pilgrimage. The inscription says: “The restoration and construction works in the place of pilgrimage were carried out by the task and initiative of Heydar Aliyev, president of the Azerbaijan Republic”. Later years around the Ashabi-Kahf place of pilgrimage restoration, restoration-construction works were carried out. Very good condition was created for the pilgrimagers during restoration and construction works in Ashabi-Kahf, a very comfortable road of 13km distance was constructed, the planting works along the road were held, and a mosque was built. Today the pilgrims, tourists, and guests from the other regions of Azerbaijan and foreign countries visit here.

 

ALINJAGALA – It is a fortress in Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic. Alinjagala is at the 30km distance from Nakhchivan, on the right side of the Alinjachay, in the territory of Khanagah, on the top of the mountain of the same name of Julfa region on the height of 1700m. The main entrance of fortress is from two sides: east and west. One of the most ancient sources, where Alinjagala is depicted, is the epos of the “Kitabi-Dada Gorgud”. It was possible to keep a herd of horses and cattles before and other military ammunition in the fortress. 

Alinjagala played irreplaceable role in the history of Middle Age countries existed in the territory of Azerbaijan and was used as a fortification against foreign countries. In the reign of the Azerbaijan Atabaylar –the Eldanizlar, the importance of the Alinjagala rose. The last quarter of the XIV century has big importance in the history of Alinjagala. It is about Amir Teymur’s attacks and the defense of the fortress. The fortress was bravely defended for 14 years (1387-1401) against Teymur’s attacks. Temer marched 4 times (1387, 1393, 1397, and 1400) to Alinjagala, but he failed. Alinjagala had special military-strategic importance in the Middle Ages. Alinjagala underwent the power of Hulakus, Chobanis, Jalairis, Aghgoyunlus, Garagoyunlus, and Safavis in different periods.  However, it was destroyed as a result of feudal intrigates and wars. Alinjagala is the symbol of bellicosity and intransigence. 

Alinjagala was included to the list of world famous historical and cultural monuments in 2007. According to the decree “About restoration of “Alinjagala” situated in Julfa region” by the Chairman of Supreme Assembly of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, on 11 February, 2014, the restoration work was held in the fortress. 

 

THE GAZANCHI FORTRESS – It is a historical-archeological monument belonging to the beginning of the 3-1 millennium B.C., in both banks of the Alinjachay, in the North of Gazanchi village of Julfa region. The fortress is connected with the ancient and wide spread Kas Turks who inhabited in our regions in the 3 millennium B.C. The fortress was exploded in 1985 by the Armenian engineers under the dam pretext. The left bank and right bank parts of the fortress are divided from each-other by means of deep valleys consisting of precipitous rocks. The fortress consists of multistep mighty defence system. There is a passage from one wall to annother. Very likely, the Gazanchi fortress was the center of a large tribal community who lived in the Alinjachay valley at the beginning of the 2nd millennium B.C.

The above ground materials accumulated from the Gazanchi fortress consist of the grinding stones, grey and pink colour clay pottery (pot, bowl, little pot type wares and others). The finds are kept in the History-Ethnographic Museum of Julfa region. The name of Gazanchi is thought to be linked with the name of protagonist of “Kitabi-Dada Gorgud” epos - Gazan khan.

 

 

FARHAD HOUSE - The archaeological monument in Batabat summer pasture, to the East from Bichanak village, Shahbuz region. To the right of Nakhchivan-Lachin- Yevlakh automobile way, at about 1 km distance to the East from Zorbulag. It consists of four rooms hewed by a hack typed metal tool in liparit tuffa rock. They are connected with a straight passage of the same direction. Little recesses were excavated on the walls for to install lamps or candles. Along the walls a pavement was constructed; there is a well, fire place in the right corner of the first room. A long haired man head in the right of the entrance and in the left a woman picture were engraved on the rock of Farhad house. Considering the rise of visitors through Nakhchivan-Batabat way a large caravansary was built a bit to the North from Farhad house in the Middle Ages. Local people called it Shah Abbas caravansary. The investigations give an opportunity for us to say that Farhad house is about the end of the 1 millennium B.C and early years of our century.

 

 

NAKHCHIVANGALA - It is an archaeological monument located in the south-east of the city. In the scientific literature and among the people, it is known by the names "Nakhchivan", "Kohnagala".

During the years of 1957-1959 surveys conducted in the fortress, rich archeological materials, especially the pottery fragments, stone clubs were found. It is known form archaeological studies that even in the 3-2 millennium BC in the Bronze Age stone gurzs were used in salt mines. According to the Turkish traveler Evliya Celebi, Mongol invaders destroyed the fortress. French travelers Chardin and Frehang, who were in Nakhchivan later, remind that fortress in their works. 

The tower has been in operation in the nineteenth century. Schematic plan of the castle was drawn in 1827. According to the plan, the castele consists of two parts - Kichikgala-Naringala and Boyukgala. There is an underground shelter-cave in the South-West of the castle where 300 people can be protected. A hole is opened in the upper part for ventilation and lighting. The secret way to the East from the cave, most likely, is to the river Nakhchivan flowing 2 kilometers away from the castle. Two wells of kehriz passing from Naringala is situated inside the fortress.

Nakhchivangala’s restoration began in 2010. Chairman of the Supreme Assembly of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic has signed a decree on June 5, 2013, "On the establishment of the Historical and Architectural Museum Complex Nakhchivangala". On April 7, 2014, with the participation of Azerbaijani President Ilham Aliyev, "Nakhchivangala" History and Architecture Museum Complex was opened.

 

 

 THE TOMB OF USIF KUSEYIR OGLU - The architectural monument in the city of Nakhchivan. This monument situated in the street of Sheykh Mahammad Khiyabani is also called as Atababa tomb or Atababa dome by people. The tomb of more than 8 centuries was restored in the middle of the 20 century. As a result of restoration works the destroyed parts of the tomb were restored and engineering installations were enforced. The monument consists, of the underground vault and overground towerformed part. In plan the overground of the monument is octagonial both inside and outside. The thickness of the walls is 80 cm. We see the only example of the double dome structure in the tomb being very great, saving its initial form and reaching to our time. It is the result of  mastery engineering that Usif Kuseyir oglu tomb  is the only tomb having upper pyramidal cover and remaining understroyed during 800 years among the towerformed tombs in Azerbaijan. The inscription on the tomb predicts that, “This tomb belongs to Usif Kuseyir oglu, leader of sheikhs, beautiness of Islam, intellect of religion, distinguished chief and khaja”. The very inscription also predicts that the tomb was built in 557 by Hijri calendar, month of shavval (christianity 1162). But in the inscription to the left of the main façade the name of an architect “Deed of Ajami Abubakr oglu Nakhchivani, builder” was stated. Underground part of the tomb consists of a vault, but overground part of a memorial tower. In the middle of the vault dome a special ventilation space in a sylindric form was arranged to defend from dampness. For its composition, tecthonic clearness, proportionality of parts, level of engineering structure the tomb is a very advanced artistic-architectural example.

 

 

THE MOMUNA KHATUN TOMB – It is a historical-architectural monument in the city of Nakhchivan. It is a grandiose monument of the Azerbaijan national architecture and one of the pearls of the Eastern architecture. The tomb was built in the West of Nakhchivan in 1186 by the architect Ajami Abubakr oglu Nakhchivani. Shamsaddin Eldaniz, the founder of the Azerbaijan Atabaylar state, made a decision to erect a tomb on the grave of his wife Momuna khatin, and its construction was finished by Mahammad Jahan Pahlavan, the son of the ruler, in 582 AH, in the Maharram month (April, 1186). People remember it as the “Atabay dome”. In the head arch of the monument these words were written in Kufic: “We pass away, but only the wind is left behind us. We die, but only a work is left as a present”. The total height of it was 34m, but later the cover of 8m was destroyed. The tomb consists of underground (vault) and aboveground parts. According to some investigators, Shamsaddin Eldaniz, the ruler of the Atabaylar state, his wife Momuna khatin, and his son Mahammad Jahan Pahlavan were buried in the tomb. The headstones of the buried people in the vault were robbed and taken away. Very masterly restoration works were carried out with the precious stone in the vault (2003). The aboveground part of the tomb is decagonal from the exterior (it was bordered with the Kufic inscriptions on either side), but its interior is round formed. There are four round medallions in which the names of the Caliphs were written inside the dome. According to its completion, the Western part of the tomb is differed. Here the surface was divided into two parts: in the under part the entrance door was completed in the head arch form, but in the above part the ornamental designs were given. The inscriptions showing the name of the sculptor and the date of its construction were engraved in the above of the head arch. The monument reflects the ancient history of Azerbaijan, great statehood, a very high level culture, its great architectural schooling, side by side of its grandiose architectural richness. It is clearly seen from the photos and paintings of the 19th century that there were monumental buildings and also Jame mosque around the tomb.

 

 

THE GARABAGHLAR TOMB - It is a historical-architectural monument of the Middle Ages in Garabaghlar village of Kangarli region. Besides the tomb included to the architectural complex, there is a double minaret and remainders of the religious building situated between them. It is supposed that the double minaret was built at the end of XII century and at the beginning of XIII century. But the head arch joining the minarets belong to the XIV century. As the name of the Guti Khatin, the wife of Hulaku khan, the ruler of the Elkhanis, was written on the head arch, it is supposed that the monument was built in honor of Guti khatin. The scientific secretary of the “Nakhchivan Investigation and Tatabbo Society” M. Mirheydarzadeh in 1928 identified that following words were written in Arabic in the double minaret head arch inscription: “This sign of God is Guti khatin, Turkman”. The main features of the tower shape tombs consisting of the vault and overground part were resembled in the Garabaghlar tomb. The surface of the Garabaghlar tomb was decorated with the inscription remaining the geometric ornament covered with red and turquoise glazed bricks. The context of the inscriptions consists of the “La ilaha illallah Muhammadin Rasulallah” “There is no God, but God, Mohammad (s.ə.v.) is his follower”. The composition feature of the Garabaghlar tomb is its being of 4 head arches. These head arches are arranged in the North, South, West and East directions and give a 4 facade image to the tomb. The upper conic shape dome of the Garabaghlar tomb and the related inscriptions were destroyed, and therefore to determine its date exactly is impossible. But all investigations show that the tomb was built at the beginning of the XIV century. According to the similarity between the Garabaghlar tomb and the Barda tomb and as both of them were built at the beginning of the XIV century, it is supposed that both of the monuments belong to the same architectural school and even it is also supposed that the tomb was built by Ahmad Ayyub oglu Hafiz Nakhchivani, the author of the Barda tomb.

 

KHANAGAH ARCHITECTURAL COMPLEX - The architectural complex about the Middle Ages on Alinjachay bank, in the village of Khanagah of Julfa region. From the complex, as known Sheykh Khorasan among people, only a tomb, a mosque and remainders of some buildings have reached up today. For the inscription installed on the top of the entrance door from South, the tomb was built by the architect Khaja Jamaladdin, by the order of Ulug Gutlug Lala bay, emir, isfahsalar, great scientist. Since the edge part of the inscription has gone to pieces to certaining the date of construction exactly was impossible. But for its architectural–constructive structure it may be related to the XII–XIII centuries. There is one grave within the fortress. But since the inscription left to learn who had been buried in it was impossible. For the local people Fazlullah Naimi, the founder of the hurifism, when killed tragically in 1394 in Alinja, his followers buried him here. Just for this, Khanagah complex named as (Sheykh Khorasan) by local people, is investigated by the specialists as one of nicknames of F.Naimi in the form of Sheykh Khurasa (having the meaning-Sunlike, Sheykh of blessed aspect) and as F.Naimi had come to Azerbaijan after his study in Khorasan, is explained as Sheykh from Khorasan. The tomb mosque close in the South of the tomb was built by Khond Bika Khatun by hijri 901 (Christianity 1495-96) to the memory of Sheykh Haji Lala Malik, one of the leaders of the mystic sector acting in the settlement that time. According to the tradition that time the Mystic Sheykhs lived in the settlement with their families and after death were buried near the settlement. Khanagah was a settlement for the dervish who for a long time were busy with praying, resolving there. For the epigraphic evidences the settlement also existed in the XVIII century and the members of this sector spread their ideas.

 

THE NAKHCHIVAN ICE-HOUSE – It is an architectural monument near the Imamzadeh complex, in the city of Nakhchivan. It is one of the biggest ice-houses in the Azerbaijan Republic. The length of the ice-house is 20m, the width is 9m, and present height is 9,6m. The very technical qualified solution of the brick cover built in nature, the arrangement of the cover lengthwise, eight and dynamic construction scheme are the characteristic peculiarities of the Nakhchivan ice-house. The ice-house of its similarity exists in the city of Ordubad of the Azerbaijan territory. The great architectural solution of the Nakhchivan ice-house shows that this monument was built in the renaissance period of the Nakhchivan architectural schooling (XII-XIV centuries). Restoration and renovation works were held here, and now “National Dishes” catering facility exist here.

 

 

 

GULUSTAN TOMB -It is an architectural monument of Middle Ages situated near the village of Gulustan in Julfa region. It was built by the effect of Momuna Khatun tomb at the beginning of XII century. Gulustan tomb (mentioned as “Kesik Gunbez” in Medieval sources) has a special place among other Medieval architectural monuments of Azerbaijan as it differs from them in its architecture-constructive structure.

The vault of Gulustan tomb is situated on the surface part which is called platform. The platform has a shape of frustum-pyramid from outside, but the cylinder from inside. The frustum-pyramid which is like a square in plan turns to a Dodecagon upwards. There is an upper chamber with twelve sides on it. The tomb surfaces were decorated with carved geometric ornaments and decorative arches. As in other tombs of Nakhchivan architectural school, the inside of niches of Gulustan tomb is covered with delicate geometric ornaments. The architect has placed the various formed geometric ornaments on the surface of the tomb so that when one looks at one side, he can see different ornaments on adjacent sides.

The tombs built with the same architectural method of Gulustan tomb are widespread not only in the regions of Azerbaijan, but also in the Anadolu region of Turkey. Gulustan tomb has also a link with the other monuments situated in the surrounding areas. The monuments around the tomb are included in one archeological complex. The architectural style of the tomb is like the monuments of the Seljuk’s period, but the geometric ornaments are like the monuments of Ajami architectural school. Considering the historical and cultural importance of the area where the tomb and monument is located, “Gulustan” Historical-Cultural Reserve was established here. The reserve is situated on the left bank of Araz River.

Gulustan tomb was restored according to the decree “On restoration and investigation of Gulustan tomb” signed by the Chairman of Supreme Assembly of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, on October 7, 2015. 

  

 

KIRNA TOMB – The architectural monument in Kirna village of Julfa region. The monument shows that the Nakhchivan architectural schooling established very magnificent of the architectural composition styles buildings with a central dome type. The general view of the monument gives an opportunity to express concrete views of its being a tomb or a mosque. The building square shape in plan, was double covered, which was characteristic for the tombs, was covered a joined span inside, but outside with a pyramid shape dome. As there is no inscription, to determine its date of construction becomes difficult. But considering the stated facts above, it is possible to relate the date of the construction of the monument to the XIII century.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE ORDUBAD ICE-HOUSE - It is an architectural monument of the XIV century, in the center of Ordubad. It was restored again in the XVIII century. The total area of the building is 166m2, the building consists of a large room, 36 stairs of 2 marches, and a cellar where ice was kept inside of the entrance. The total height of the building is 11,3m. In order to defend from hot in summer, the local people used this ice-house to save their products and personal food. The ice produce was carried out in winter by means of water filling the ice – house. In order not to defreeze the ice, the people placed chaff into the ice. During summer months special people used to tie felt on their feet and took out the ice out of the ice-house. The right ice-house provided the need of the Ordubad population. Restoration work was held here and on 26 September, 2014, it was opened. Today, the special cuisine of Ordubad is presented in Ordubad Ice House.

 

 

 

THE GAZANCHI BRIDGE – It is a historical architectural monument built over the Alinjachay, to the South of Gazanchi village, Julfa region. The bridge is popular as “Gozbel Korpu” among local people. The bridge was built in the Eastern architectural style in XVI-XVII centuries. Before, by this bridge, which served the Silk Road, the caravan ways stretching from Gazanchi toward the east direction and joining with the key way in Ordubad territory passed. Though the bridge in comparison remained good, but it is unfit for transport. Despite of this, it is said to be one of the best examples of a one spanned bridges of Azerbaijan. The width of the bridge is 3.55m, the length is 10.85m, and the height is 8.8m. The bridge was built of a bit of hewed stones. The border and archivolt of the spans consist of sand stone hewed perfectly. Thanks to this, the sides of spans are differed from the rugged surface of bridge and reflects its construction.

 

 

 

GEYSARIYYA - The historical monument about XVII century, Ordubad city. Situated in the center of the city. Total area 540 m2. The monument consists of a hall center which is a 10x10 octagonal wis a round dome covering its roof, very complicated four supporters holding the dome in the corners and the passages arranging between the supporters and side wall recesses. The passages roof has been covered with 16 little domes. Including  central dome its Eastern bazaar in which some belongings of the shahs-jewels, red precious stones and so on were put on sale. This kind of construction exists in 3 places of the world; Samargand,Tabriz and Ordubad cities. At present the most magnificient and amenity of that is in Ordubad. Later on this monument had been used as "Zorkhana" (Wrestling hall). Wrestlers from Iran, Turkey, Hamadan and other places demonstrated their power in this arena. He who became winner was presented with a little pouch of gold by the khan sitting in the room and watching. Member of "Anjumani-Shuara" literary society that was established about in the middle of XIX century assembled in this building and read their poems and finally declared the name of the best. At the end of the XX century, in 1978 the monument was restored by Zakir Hashim oglu Babayev, architect from Ordubad. Since 1981 Geysariyya has been acting as History-Ethnography Museum of Ordubad region.

 

THE AZA BRIDGE – It is an architectural monument of the XVII century over the river Gilanchay, in the village of Aza, Ordubad region. The width of the bridge which connects the Aza village with the village of Darkandi, is 3,5m and the length is 46 pagonameters. It is five spanned. The Aza bridge situated on the very important trade-caravan route and connecting India and China with the Black Sea coasts and European countries was constructed in the reign of Shah Abbas the First, the ruler of the Safavids, (1587-1629) to simplify the works of the trade caravans moving by the Big Silk Road from East to West and the opposite routes, respectively. By means of the trade caravans passing from here, mainly local products, of which dry fruits, the handicraft objects, and silk were exported. The bridge was several times destroyed as a result of natural calamities and some historical events, but later it was restored. Because of strong flooding and as a result of which, a part of it was washed away the bridge was capitally restored and reconstructed in 1997. Today the people going from Nakhchivan and Ordubad to Azadkand and even the transport make use of this bridge.

 


THE BUILDING OF ZAVIYA–MADRASA  – It is a historical architectural monument in the street of Zaviya, in the intersection of Heydar Aliyev avenue and Tabriz street, in the city of Nakhchivan. Zaviya is one of the Mystic sector settlements having the meaning of corner, angle in Arabic. The dervishes of different sectors lived in the Zaviyas as it was in the khanagahs and gathered their followers around and spread their ideas. Some sectors followers existing in the Middle Ages in Nakhchivan did not attend the mosques, but built own Takyas and Zaviyas and lived there and were busy with praying. The outer architectural image of the mosque included to the Nakhchivan architectural school, its plan structure, and self composition show that it is the production of the XVII-XVIII centuries having rich construction traditions. The current interior structure of the building consists of a big pray hall, a vestibule joining it, three two storey subsidiary rooms and a minaret having wind stairs. As the spherical domes of the salon and other buildings were destroyed, they were substituted with the rectilinear cover. The main entrance is from the West. From the door in the entrance portal there is a way to the triangle vestibule. The building was used as a club, a pioneers’ house, a religious office, and other objects in the XX century. It was capitally repaired and restored in 2008, and since 2012 it is the building of Tourism Information Center. 

 

THE KHAN PALACE – It is a historical architectural monument of the XVIII century in Nakhchivan. The monument built in the Eastern architectural style was the residence of the Nakhchivan khans till the beginning of the XX century. The palace was built by Kalbali khan Kangarli, the father of the last Nakhchivan khan Ehsan khan at the end of the XVIII century. The Khan Palace was built in the West of the palace complex with 3600m2 area, according to the relief of the khan diki (the hill of khan) facing to the direction of the sunrise. The building is of two storeys. Before, the palace consisted of two separate parts. The South part was considered for the administrative works and receiving very high ranked guests, but the Northern part was considered for the family of the khan. The entrance to the parts was through the arched corridor of the two storey balcony. There was arranged an inside passage between the parts. The stairs lead to the corridors. The windows were used of the lattice system, and recesses of different sizes characteristic for the Nakhchivan dwelling houses were used in all the rooms. The building was heated by means of two fire-places arranged in the walls. The Khan Palace has been acting as the “Khan Palace”, Momuna Khatun, and Museum in Open Air Complex since 2015. The museum consists of 8 halls. Documents and photographs belonging to Nakhchivan khan families, original sources reflecting the history of khan’s period, also copper examples of that period and other valuable museum materials are exhibited in the museum.There is an auxiliary building with the size of 42x8m in the Khan Palace Complex. 

 


THE JAME MOSQUE – It is an architectural monument in the Nakhchivan city. According to its architectural–constructive structure, the mosque is related to the XVIII century. There is an inscription on the entrance door. The marble plate (87x57cm) in Arabic and Persian, consisting of the religious text at the beginning, says that the Jafariyya mosque was restored by the initiative of Kheyrul-Haj Mahammad Jafar agha, the son of the late Haji Novruz from Nakhchivan in 1311 (1894). It also was stated in the inscription that the very Haji Jafar agha opened 2 shops over the river to provide the needs of the mosque and the servants working there. “Over the river” is the Bazar River which was flowing from Northern-East to Southern-West and joining the Araz River. This river was flowing in the center of Nakhchivan till the 60 years of the 20th century. In the 60th years, the river was covered with the panel concrete plates and became unseen. The architect of the mosque introduced himself as: “If somebody will seek the architect of the mosque after me, I am called by the name of the Imam after the eighth Imam”. It is a fact that the eighth Imam of the Shiahs is Imam Rza and the ninth Imam is Mahammad Tagi. So, the name of the architect was Mahammad Tagi. The total area of the mosque is about           1000 m2. The mosque is of one minaret. The minaret was damaged in 1918 by a gun fire when Armenians committed genocide against the Azerbaijanis in Nakhchivan. Later, the minaret was restored. It was the only mosque that acted in Nakhchivan during the Soviet Power. In 2007, the mosque was capitally restored and reconstructed.

 

 

THE "ISMAYILKHAN" BATH-HOUSE – It is a historical–architectural monument in the square of Dada–Gorgud, in the intersecting of the Heydar Aliyev Avenue and the Tabriz Street, Nakhchivan city. The building built in the middle of the XVIII century of the Eastern architectural style consists of the entrance, service hall, swimming-pool, treasury, and furnace house. The total area is 526m2. The building is rectangular shaped. The entrance to the bath-house is from the joined span portal. It is possible to enter the bath–house from the wide corridor, but to the cloak-room from the narrow passage. Six deep recesses were arranged along the walls of the hall. A pool was built in the center of the hall of 2x2m size. The ceiling of the hall of 108m2 was covered with the spherical dome. The bath-house was lit with small windows arranged in the walls of the halls and with the smoke-ducts on the dome. The water supply was by means of underground water-supply. The furnace under the pond played a great role in heating the bath house. The heat to the rooms was delivered by means of the underground canals. The bath-house, name of which is connected with the name of Ismailkhan, one of the khans of Nakhchivan, is in good condition after a capital repair and restoration. It is defended by State as a historical-architectural monument.

 

THE "KOROGHLU" MONUMENT - It was erected in the square of Koroghlu, in the street of Aziz Aliyev, on the bank of the Nakhchivanchay, in the city of Nakhchivan. The author of the monument- Koroghlu on the horse, national hero, is Huseyngulu Aliyev, Honoured Art Worker, sculptor, the National Artist of Azerbaijan Republic. The monument erected in 1988 was given a new design in 2008.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE MONUMENT OF "BABEK" - It is situated in front of the railway station in the square of Babak of Nakhchivan. The Babak monument was erected by Elman Jafarov, sculptor, the Honoured Art Worker of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic in 1988.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HUSEIN JAVID TOMB - It is a huge architectural-memorial complex erected on the grave of Husein Javid, the great Azerbaijan poet and playwright in Nakhchivan. The monument was built by personal initiative and protection of Heydar Aliyev, President of the Azerbaijan Republic. The mausoleum, in which the style of the Ajami Nakhchivani architecture is vividly seen, consists of the upper and lower-vault parts. The graves of Mishkinaz khanim, Javid’s wife, and Artoghrul, the son of Husein Javid, (both graves were removed here in 1966 when the mausoleum was under construction) and the grave of Turan khanim, the daughter of Husein Javid, are in the vault. The bust of Husein Javid was erected here. The author of the monument is Rasim Aliyev, the Honoured Architect of the Azerbaijan Republic, and the sculptor of the monument is Omar Eldarov, the People’s Artist. The monument was built by the “Star” construction company of the Turkish Republic. The inauguration of the monument was on October 29, 1996, on the occasion of the 114th anniversary of Husein Javid.

 

THE MONUMENT OF "DADA-GORGUD" - The monument was erected in honour of the 1300th jubilee of the Kitabi Dada–Gorgud epos, in 1999. The sculptor of the huge monument erected to our great “Dada-Gorgud”, which was arranged in front of the Tabriz hotel, in the Heydar Aliyev avenue of Nakhchivan, is Elman Jafarov, the Honoured Art worker of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic. Dada-Gorgud is depicted thinking with his lute on his knee in the monument of 5.3m. A stringed lute instrument in the left hand of the figure was prepared of iron sheets and profiles with welding method. The figure sits on dump in the composition. The statue has a hat on his head belonging to ancient Turks, a long cloak with open collar, and a fichu on his arms. The hair and beard forms, the main attributes of portrait drawing of the figure, create the characteristic image of Dada-Gorgud. The characteristic drawings of the image were drawn on the base of portrait taken from Turkish variant. 

 

 

See more The Encyclopaedia of Nakhchivan Monuments

 

 

00018358
Today
Yesterday
This week
This Month
All day
3
11
261
543
18358

Date: 17-12-2017
We are in social networks: